Almroth Edward Wright developed the first effective typhoid vaccine.
“Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that can spread throughout the body, affecting many organs. Without prompt treatment, it can cause serious complications and can be fatal” (“Typhoid Fever,” National Health Services UK).
It is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person.
Onset symptoms are fever, malaise, headache, cough, bloody nose, weakness, general aches and pains, and abdominal pain. In the second week, symptoms grow more severe, including increase in weakness and fatigue, rise in fever, delirium (thus the nickname “nervous fever”), rattling in the chest (rhonchi), enlarged and tender spleen and liver, distended and painful abdomen, diarrhea or constipation. Some develop a rose-colored skin rash.
Beginning in the third week, complications can lead to death in about 20% of the cases. These include intestinal hemorrhage, intestinal perforation, peritonitis, septicemia, pneumonia, acute bronchitis, neuropsychiatric symptoms (“muttering delirium”), dehydration, delirium, and risk of bleeding.
Without treatment, symptoms can last weeks or even months.
About 3%-5% of victims are left with a chronic gall bladder infection.
A vaccine for typhoid was developed in 1897 by English bacteriologist Almroth Wright. The vaccine was used sparingly by the British military in the Boer War (1899-1902) and was made compulsory in World War I (1914-1918). “For the first time, their casualties due to combat exceeded those from disease” (“Medical Lessons from World War I,” Minneapolis Post, Nov. 11, 2014). It was estimated to have saved up to half a million lives. The British military fatality rate from typhoid fell from 12.6 per 1,000 in the Boer War to 0.14 per 1,000 in World War I. In 1911, the U.S. Army became the first army to be fully immunized by vaccination.
Typhoid vaccinations are recommended for those traveling in high risk areas, which are the Indian subcontinent, Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and South America.
In 2015, 12.5 million cases were reported, resulting in about 149,000 deaths.
Typhoid can be treated with antibiotics. Formerly, ciprofloxicin, ampicillin, and streptomycin were among the first-line treatments, but a multi-drug resistant form of typhoid is a growing problem, particularly in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. In areas of multidrug-resistant typhoid, first-line drugs are ceftriaxone (by injection) and azithromycin (by mouth).
Treatment reduces the fatality rate to about 1%.
Typhoid Mary. Between 1900 and 1907, there were small outbreaks of typhoid in several households in New York City. The infections were traced to Mary Mallon (1869-1938), an Irish domestic cook who was a non-symptomatic carrier and had been employed in each of the homes. She was isolated in Riverside Hospital until 1910, when she was released after promising not to take employment that involved the handling of food. In 1914, typhoid broke out in two hospitals in New Jersey and Manhattan, and it was discovered that Mary had worked at both places. She was re-incarcerated in Riverside Hospital and remained there until her death 23 years later. It was said that she was directly responsible for 51 cases of typhoid and three deaths, and many more indirectly. She was called “Typhoid Mary” by the New York American newspaper in June 1909. Today that term refers to “a person or object that brings widespread death and destruction.”
Sharing Policy: Much of our material is available for free, such as the hundreds of articles at the Way of Life web site. Other items we sell to help fund our expensive literature and foreign church planting ministries. Way of Life's content falls into two categories: sharable and non-sharable. Things that we encourage you to share include the audio sermons, O Timothy magazine, FBIS articles, and the free eVideos and free eBooks. You are welcome to make copies of these at your own expense and share them with friends and family. You may also post parts of reports and/or entire reports to websites, blogs, etc as long as you give proper credit (citation). A link to the original report is very much appreciated as the reports are frequently updated and/or expanded. Things we do not want copied and distributed are "Store" items like the Fundamental Baptist Digital Library, print editions of our books, electronic editions of the books that we sell, the videos that we sell, etc. The items have taken years to produce at enormous expense in time and money, and we use the income from sales to help fund the ministry. We trust that your Christian honesty will preserve the integrity of this policy. "For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward" (1 Timothy 5:18). Questions? firstname.lastname@example.org
Goal:Distributed by Way of Life Literature Inc., the Fundamental Baptist Information Service is an e-mail posting for Bible-believing Christians. Established in 1974, Way of Life Literature is a fundamental Baptist preaching and publishing ministry based in Bethel Baptist Church, London, Ontario, of which Wilbert Unger is the founding Pastor. Brother Cloud lives in South Asia where he has been a church planting missionary since 1979. Our primary goal with the FBIS is to provide material to assist preachers in the edification and protection of the churches.
Offering: We take up a quarterly offering to fund this ministry, and those who use the materials are expected to participate (Galatians 6:6) if they can. We do not solicit funds from those who do not agree with our preaching and who are not helped by these publications. We seek offerings only from those who are helped. OFFERINGS can be mailed or made online with with Visa, Mastercard, Discover, or Paypal. For information see: www.wayoflife.org/about/makeanoffering.html.
Way of Life Literature
Publisher of Bible Study Materials