Some of the Psalms contain amazing conversations between God the Father and the Son. Here we see the doctrine of the Trinity. We see that God has a Son, and the Son is the Anointed (Christ). We see the Son addressed by God as God, even as Jehovah. We see that the Son is the Creator. We see that the Son will sit at the right hand of God in heaven. We see that the Son will rule over God’s kingdom forever.
- Verses 1-3 describe the world’s end-time rebellion against God and His Anointed, who is Christ. The Anointed is identified as the Son. Compare v. 2 with v. 7 and v. 12.
- Verses 5 is the Father’s words to the Son to conquer the nations and rule them. “I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.”
- From Hebrews 1:8-9, which quotes Ps. 45:6-7, we know that Psalm 45 is the Father speaking directly to the Son. The Father addresses the Son as God (v. 6).
- The Father addresses the son as king (v. 1), as the fairest of men (v. 2), as one whose speech is full of grace (v. 2), as blessed of God forever (v. 2). He instructs the Son to ride in majesty and victory over the wicked (vv. 3-5). He describes the Son’s eternal kingdom of righteousness and joy (vv. 6-7). He describes the Son’s glorious reign: the righteousness (v. 6), the justice (v. 7), the joy (v. 7), the palaces and odors and clothing (vv. 8, 9), the Queen (vv. 10, 11), the supplicants and petitioners from the nations (v. 12), the children who are all of those who are redeemed by Christ (v. 16), the eternal praise (v. 17).
- Psalm 102 is a conversation between Christ in His incarnation and the Father. This is clear in that Hebrews 1 quotes Psalm 102 as words spoken by the Father to the Son. Hebrews 1:8 quotes Ps. 102:12 and Hebrews 1:10-12 quotes Ps. 102:25-27.
- Verses 1-11: The Son describes his afflictions on earth. He asks the Father not to hide His face from him (v. 2). Compare Mt. 27:46. He describes His suffering on the cross (vv. 3-5). He describes the continual reproach of His enemies and their plots against Him (v. 8). Compare Mt. 26:4; Mr. 11:18; 14:1; Lu. 19:47. He describes His tears (v. 9). Compare Lu. 19:41; Joh. 11:35. He describes enduring God’s wrath (v. 10). Compare Isa. 53:5, 10; 2 Co. 5:21; Gal. 3:13. He describes being cut off in His youth (v. 11).
- Verses 12-22: The Father encourages the Son. He addresses Him as LORD (v. 12). In Hebrews 1:8 this is translated “God.” The Father speaks to the Son of the eternal joy and fruitfulness that lies before Him beyond the cross and because of the cross. He will live forever (v. 12). He will rise from the dead (v. 13). He will build up Zion and rule in glory over the nations (vv. 13-16, 21-22). He will rule with compassion on the needy (v. 17). He will redeem sinners from enslavement and death (v. 19-20).
- Verses 23-24: The Son again speaks of His sufferings and His approaching death. This kind of language was used in Gethsemane (Lu. 24:41-44).
- Verses 25-28: The Father again encourages the Son in His earthly afflictions. He states that the Son has created all things and will live forever (vv. 25-26). The first creation will perish and be replaced with the new creation (v. 26). The Son is eternal and unchanging (v. 27). The Son will redeem multitudes of sinners who will be His servants and children (v. 28).
- The LORD Jehovah speaks to David’s Lord (v. 1). Jesus used this to confound the Pharisees (Lu. 20:41-44). “David therefore calleth him Lord, how is he then his Son”? Jesus’ enemies could not answer this, because they did not believe the Scripture’s teaching that the Messiah is both man, David’s son, and God, David’s Lord.
- Verses 1-7 is the Father’s words to the Son. He will sit at the right hand of God until His enemies are made His footstool (v. 1). This happened at Christ’s ascension after He had made the perfect atonement as the price of redemption. “But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God; From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool. For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified” (Heb. 10:12-13). Beginning with Peter’s sermon at Pentecost, Ps. 110:1 is often quoted and referred to in the New Testament (Ac. 2:34-35; Ro. 8:34; Eph. 1:20; Heb. 1:3, 13; 8:1; 12:2; 1 Pe. 3:22). The Son will rule in Zion over his enemies (vv. 2-3). He is a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek (v. 4). He will conquer the kings of the earth through the power of the Lord (vv. 5-7).
- Between verses 1 and 2 is the Church Age, which is a mystery unseen in Old Testament Scripture. During this period, God calls out a people from among the nations to be special eternal trophies of His grace. See Ac 15:14; Ro. 11:25-27; Eph. 2:4-7. The Spirit of God was sent at Pentecost for this great work (Ac. 1:8). It is overseen by the Son from the right hand of God in heaven.
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