The Soul Is the Immaterial Part of Man that Exists after Death. O.T. examples of the soul as an immaterial part of the man are seen in Ge. 35:18 and 1 Ki. 17:21-22. In Ge. 35:18, Rachel’s soul departed when she died. In 1 Ki. 17:21-22, the boy’s soul departed when he died and returned when he was raised from the dead. In the N.T., the word “soul” is also used to describe a spiritual part of man distinct from his body (Mt. 10:28; 1 Th. 5:23; Re. 6:9).
The Characteristics of the Soul. The soul thinks (Ge. 49:6); it can sin (Le. 4:2); it can love God and keep His commandments (De. 6:5; 10:12; 11:13); it can meditate upon God’s words (De. 11:18); it can love a friend (1 Sa. 18:1-3); it can trust in God (Ps. 57:1; 63:1); it can be chastened with fasting (Ps. 69:10). The soul is particularly associated with man’s feelings and desires. The soul can be hungry (Is. 29:8), can experience romantic love and friendship (Ge. 34:3; 1 Sa. 18:1-3), can be discouraged because of difficulty (Nu. 21:4). The soul can be “anguished” (Ge. 42:21), “dried out” (Nu. 11:6), “grieved” (Ju. 10:16; Job 30:25), “cast down” (Ps. 43:5). The soul can “lust” (De. 12:15), “long” (De. 12:20), and “thirst for God” (Ps. 42:2).
What is the Difference between Soul and Spirit? The “soul” is used in close association with the “spirit” (Job 7:11; Isa. 26:9). In some cases the “soul” appears to be be a synonym for the “spirit.” The same is true for the heart. The soul is closely associated with the heart. It appears that the heart is part of the soul. They are used together 27 times (De. 4:9, 29; 6:5; 10:12; 11:13, 18; 13:3; 26:16; 30:2, 6, 10; Jos. 22:5; 1 Ki. 2:4; 8:48; 2 Ki. 23:3, 25; 1 Ch. 22:19; 2 Ch. 6:38; 15:12; 34:31; Psa. 13:2; 24:4; 84:2; Pr. 2:10; 24:12; Je. 4:19; 32:41). Sometimes heart and reins are used to describe man’s inner being (Je. 11:20; 12:2; 17:10; 20:12). These terms appear to be used interchangeably at times to refer to the inner man. But the N.T. makes a plain distinction between soul and spirit. It says that man has both a soul and a spirit (1 Th. 5:23), and the soul can be divided from the spirit (He. 4:12). It appears from Hebrews 4:12 that the spirit is “inside” the soul as the marrow is inside the joints or bones. The soul is the “outer part” of the inner, immaterial man. As we have seen, the soul is the part of man that relates to the world. It lusts, hungers, loves, joys, fears, sorrows. It is emotional and therefore unstable (Psa. 119:25, 28, 81, 109). The spirit of man is also affected by emotions (2 Co. 2:13), but the spirit of man is the deepest part of man; it is that which communes with God. The spirit is where the Lord dwells in the believer and where He communes with us (Ro. 8:16; 2 Ti. 4:22). It is with the spirit that we seek God (Is. 26:9). It is by the spirit that we search the heart (Ps. 77:6; 1 Co. 2:11). The spirit is the wellspring of man’s being. “We may use the illustration of three concentric circles: The outer circle refers to the body. Our body is our outer part containing the five senses with which we contact all the things of the physical, material realm. The middle circle refers to the soul. The soul is our inner part containing the mind, emotion and will with which we contact all the things of the psychological realm. The inner circle refers to the spirit. The spirit is the innermost part with which we contact God and substantiate all the things of the spiritual realm” (Tom Smith, What Is the Difference between the Soul and Spirit of Man? holdingtotruth.com).
There are two important applications to this teaching. First, God intends for man to walk in the spirit so that man’s spirit, surrendered to God’s Spirit, controls his soul and body. The heart and the soul affect the spirit (Pr. 15:13), but the spirit should control the heart and the soul. See Ps. 42:5; Pr. 23:19. Consider the example of Mary’s praise (Lk. 1:46-47). It could be said that Mary’s rejoicing spirit moved her soul to praise God. “Mary lived and acted in her spirit, which directed her soul” (“What Is the Difference between the Soul and the Spirit?” Bibles for America, Feb. 2, 2014). Second, the Word of God can cut through man’s being, through the turmoil of the soul, to bring peace by His presence in the spirit (2 Ti. 4:22).
It also appears that soul and spirit point to a major difference between the natural body and the resurrection body. The natural body is largely soulish, whereas the resurrection body is spiritual (1 Co. 15:45). This means that the resurrection body is totally oriented to the spirit. The natural body has a spirit within the soul, but the spirit is often overwhelmed by and controlled by the soul. The resurrection body will be oriented in an entirely different manner so as to be completely dominated by the spiritual realm. [See also Death, Heart, Hell, Immortal, Mind, Spirit.]
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